The second mechanism relates to the oxidation of compounds in the ink.
Spectroscopically generated curves are plotted as the ratio of reactants to products, versus time. in their book entitled Analysis and Application of Rare Earth Materials, Oslo-Bergen, Tromso, Universitets Forlaget, 1973.
The significant costs of this type of fraud are borne ultimately by the insurance company, government agencies and consumers, alike.
Combatting such fraudulent activities is difficult, because the signatures or writings are authentic as to the author, and this information in and of itself offers no proof as to when the writings were actually made.
Other problems which complicate the determination of this type of fraud is the fact that no reliable and cost effective technique has been available to accurately identify the age of a deposited ink.
The patient or doctor may then submit the falsified treatment record to an insurance company seeking reimbursement for treatments that were never offered or received.Such p H shifts are the result of the evaporation of certain chemicals in the ink.Time dating is achieved by depositing the ink on a writing surface and exposing the ink to the ambient atmosphere so that a p H shift can be detected as the composition of the ink changes with time.This type of fraud is amplified by the pain and suffering multiple which is usually paid by the insurance company based on the costs incurred in medical treatments (typically three to four times medical costs).In some cases, an entire dated treatment log, covering several months of treatment which was never received, is filled out in one sitting and submitted to an insurance company for payment.The present invention is particularly applicable to investigations that are intended to combat fraud, including medical fraud, insurance fraud, and fraud involving other time dated documents such as wills, trusts, deeds and legal agreements. Background Art The aging of ink is an important factor in the forensic examination of documents. Reed, entitled Forensic Examination of Ink and Paper, which is published by C. In fact, no conventional ink is known having a composition which lends itself to an accurate time dating method.The ability to accurately time date writings and signatures deposited on a document, or set of documents, can help determine the authenticity of the document or documents and detect fraud, such as, for example, where a document contains several time dated entries which indicate a long span of time, but the writer falsified the document by making the entries all at one time or at a fewer number of sittings than indicated by the dates written on the document. One of the most common techniques of falsifying documents and perpetrating document fraud is the act of entering multiple time dated entries at one sitting, rather than at successive times.Aging characteristics of ink are described in a book by R. This act constitutes fraud if the entries were made in fewer sittings than indicated by the dates written on the document.By way of example, a patient undergoing treatment requiring different office visits over a period of time is supposed to sign his name on a dated treatment log (known as a sign-in-sheet) each time he is treated. This website has a #1,832,595 rank in global traffic. This website has a Google Page Rank of 4 out of 10.This domain is estimated value of $ 480.00 and has a daily earning of $ 2.00.